We understand by clean room or a white room as closed space that allows to maintain extremely low levels of contamination.
The interior environment of this type of rooms is under rigorous control systems, the main parameters that are controlled are:
- Geometry and interior finishes.
- Number and dimensions of particles in the air.
- Dry temperature and distribution of it.
- Wet temperature and distribution of it.
- Air flow: speed and direction, as well as its distribution in the room.
- Internal pressure of the air and its distribution.
- Fire protection.
- Electrostatic protection.
Although in general a clean room fits this definition many times. In many cases, clean rooms are also considered those rooms that, despite not being so demanding with the purity of the air, present very strict requirements regarding the non-presence of electromagnetic fields.
This type includes, in addition to the clean rooms themselves, spaces where machinery is used that is very sensitive to this type of interference. X-ray rooms, magnetic resonance rooms, high voltage wiring rooms …
The first clean rooms began to develop in the sanitary field at the end of the 19th century. At that time, microbiologists and surgeons realized that infections, at least those caused by the bacteria contained in the atrium of the operating room, were reduced considerably when there was intense ventilation.
Likewise, the need to sterilize the surgical instruments and to apply certain rules of clothing and hygiene in the users of the room was demonstrated.
This type of facility is used in sectors whose processes require an area without impurities. They are very common in the development of microelectronic products and the pharmaceutical industry, although they are also used in areas such as:
There are different standards for the classification of these spaces, such as ISO 14644-1 or FED-STD-209E, which are grouped into classes according to the number of air particles.
Air flow in a Clean Room:
In the Clean Rooms there is a constant flow of highly filtered air that we can differentiate depending on the type of turbulent and laminar air movement.
In a turbulent or multidirectional air flow, the degree of purity is achieved by diluting the contamination by supplying clean air. On the other hand, in a room with laminar or unidirectional air flow it crosses the room uniformly so that contamination is eliminated without the possibility of spreading.
Regardless of the type of anchor fl angle, we can differentiate closed or closed circuit systems. The latter are very common, for example, in the process where toxic substances are used.
Other factors to consider:
– Personal contamination: undoubtedly one of the main sources of micro-organisms in a clean room is the users themselves. For this reason, on most occasions, you must wear appropriate clothing that is used exclusively inside the room.
– Humidity and electricity levels: it must be constant between 40% and 60% so that static electricity does not occur.
– Temperature: the temperature of the room is determined by the type of activity that is carried out in it.
– Illumination of clean rooms: the lighting must provide the amount of light necessary for the activities that will be developed. Since the processes carried out in them usually require a high degree
of precision, a quality system is essential.
At APRO-TECH we are experts in the pharmaceutical industry and clean room discipline with international reference.
Some of our capabilities:
- Conceptual design
- Basic engineering
- Detailed engineering
- Clean room solutions,
- HVAC solutions,
- Process solutions,
- Pharma equipment,
- Training and seminars focusing on client’s needs.
APRO-TECH , your partner in Life Science Engineering; Clean room, Process, HVAC, Validation, Project Management, Qualification, Layouts…